Stack Data Structure

Data structures are the building blocks of efficient algorithms and software development. Among the fundamental data structures, stacks play a pivotal role in various applications. Stack is crucial for developing robust and elegant solutions.

What is a Stack?

  • A stack is a linear data structure that follows the Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) principle.

  • It resembles a stack of objects, where the last object placed on top is the first one to be removed.

  • The stack has two primary operations: push and pop. Push adds an element to the top of the stack, while pop removes the topmost element.

  • Additionally, stacks often provide a peek operation that allows us to examine the top element without removing it.

Key Features and Operations

Let’s explore some key features and operations associated with stacks:

LIFO Principle: The Last-In-First-Out principle governs the behavior of stacks. The last element inserted into the stack is the first one to be removed.

Push: The push operation adds an element to the top of the stack. The newly inserted element becomes the new top of the stack.

Pop: The pop operation removes the topmost element from the stack. After the removal, the element just below the top becomes the new top.

Peek: The peek operation allows us to examine the top element of the stack without removing it. It is useful when we need to access or check the value of the top element.

Stack Overflow and Underflow: Stack overflow occurs when we try to push an element onto a full stack, exceeding its predefined capacity. Stack underflow, on the other hand, occurs when we try to pop or peek from an empty stack.

Applications of Stacks

Stacks find diverse applications in computer science and software development. Some common applications include:

Function Call Stack: The function call stack is instrumental in managing the execution of functions in programming languages. Each function call is pushed onto the stack, and when a function returns, it is popped from the stack, allowing the program to resume execution from the previous function.

Expression Evaluation: Stacks are often used to evaluate arithmetic expressions. They can help convert infix expressions to postfix or prefix notation, making evaluation more straightforward and efficient.

Undo/Redo Functionality: Stacks are ideal for implementing undo/redo functionality in applications. Each action is pushed onto the stack, allowing users to revert or redo operations easily.

Balancing Parentheses: Stacks can be used to check the balanced parentheses in an expression. By pushing opening parentheses onto the stack and popping them when encountering closing parentheses, we can determine if the expression is well-formed.

Backtracking Algorithms: Backtracking algorithms, such as depth-first search, often rely on stacks to keep track of the visited nodes or the current path. Stacks enable efficient exploration and backtracking in graph traversal.


  • Stacks are a fundamental data structure that follows the LIFO principle.

  • Their simplicity, along with powerful operations like push, pop, and peek, makes them an invaluable tool in solving a wide range of problems.

  • Understanding stacks and their applications can greatly enhance your ability to design efficient algorithms and develop robust software systems.

  • So, whether you’re tackling complex programming tasks or implementing elegant solutions, a solid grasp of stacks will undoubtedly strengthen your skills as a programmer.

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